Have you had your blueberries today? They are proven to improve cognition in older adults.

Blueberry smoothie in a glass jar with a straw and sprig of mintIf you’ve ever had the pleasure of picking wild blueberries or strawberries, you’ve experienced the incredible burst of fragrance and flavor offered by each berry. It is easy to get the impression that something that good MUST be incredibly good for you. That might not be a reliable test of healthfulness but, in this case, it happens to be so. Blueberries, as well as strawberries, raspberries, cherries, cranberries and other berries all have remarkable health benefits.

New studies reveal that eating blueberries every day make a significant difference in  cognition in older adults.

A double-blind controlled trial in which 13 men and 24 women, between 60 and 75 years old, ate the equivalent of one cup of fresh blueberries every day for 90 days or a blueberry placebo had an interesting result. The group that ate blueberries showed significantly fewer repetition errors in the California Verbal Learning test.*  These findings show that the addition of easily achievable quantities of blueberry to the diets of older adults can improve some aspects of cognition.

*The California Verbal Learning test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological tests in North America. It is a relatively new approach to clinical psychology and computer science. It is a measure of episodic verbal learning and memory, which demonstrates sensitivity to a range of clinical conditions.

A second study found enhanced neural activation after 16 weeks of daily blueberry supplementation in older adults with mild cognitive impairment at risk for dementia. The researchers concluded that these data demonstrate, for the first time, enhanced neural response during a working memory challenge in blueberry-treated older adults with cognitive decline and are consistent with prior trials showing neurocognitive benefit with blueberry supplementation in this at-risk population.

What’s so special about blueberries?

You’re already familiar with antioxidants, which include vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other nutrients that protect us from free radical damage. Phytochemicals fall under the category of antioxidants, but more specifically, they are compounds found in plants that have been recognized for their potential to fight and protect us from disease. More than 900 different phytochemicals have been identified as components of food, and many more phytochemicals continue to be discovered, it seems, on a weekly basis. It is estimated that there may be more than 100 different phytochemicals in just one serving of vegetables—which is one of the reasons health experts urge us to eat at least five to eight servings of fruit and vegetables each day.

Researchers have known for a long time that the phytochemicals in plants protect them from disease. But it wasn’t until 1980 when The National Cancer Institute began evaluating phytochemicals for their safety, efficacy and potential for preventing and treating human diseases that health experts recommended that we increase our consumption of fruit and vegetables as a valuable way to ward off illness and disease.

Blueberries come out on top

In a test that measures the antioxidant potency of a variety of foods—the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) test—blueberries came out on top.  This tiny, magnificent berry contains a huge serving of antioxidants that have been demonstrated to benefit numerous health conditions, including the prevention of oxidative and inflammatory stress on the lining of blood vessels and red blood cells. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protect genomic DNA integrity.

Berries as Smart Nutrients

In a landmark study in 1999, researchers at Tufts University discovered just how powerful this berry is by feeding old rats the equivalent of one cup of blueberries a day. The results were dramatic. The old rats that were fed the blueberries:

  • learned faster than the young rats
  • were more coordinated
  • showed improved motor skills
  • outperformed the young rats in memory tests

In one test, 6-month-old rats were able to run on a rod an average of 14 seconds, when compared to old rats, which fell off after six seconds. But remarkably, the old rats that were fed a blueberry supplement could stay on the rod for 10 seconds. Although the rats didn’t become young again, their skills improved tremendously. When the researchers examined the rats’ brains, they found that the brain neurons of the rats that ate the blueberries were able to communicate better.

The study was significant because the researchers discovered blueberry’s potential for reversing some age-related impairments in both memory and motor coordination. The researchers concluded that these findings suggest that, in addition to their known beneficial effects on cancer and heart disease, phytochemicals present in antioxidant-rich foods may be beneficial in reversing the course of neuronal and behavioral aging.

An earlier study done by researchers at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University published research showing that nutritional antioxidants, such as the polyphenols found in blueberries, can reverse age-related declines in brain function, namely the cognitive and motor deficits associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Since then, hundreds of studies have been done showing that all kinds of berries exert a protective effect against oxidation—a principal cause of cellular damage and death—which ultimately results in illness and disease.

 Protects against brain damage

Among blueberry varieties, wild or lowbush blueberries contain the highest antioxidant power and were shown to protect laboratory animals from brain damage from an induced stroke, after they ate blueberries for six weeks. The researchers concluded that this study suggests that inclusion of blueberries in the diet may improve ischemic stroke outcomes.

Conclusion

There are thousands of health-promoting phytochemicals in plants—which is why it’s so important to eat a wide variety of colorful fruits and vegetables every day. Berries contain numerous phytochemicals (including anthocyanins, lutein, carotenoids, ellagic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) that have potent antioxidant and inflammatory effects—that have specifically been shown to protect us from numerous health ailments and diseases.

But most Americans do not meet the Recommended Daily Allowance of five to eight fruits and vegetables a day. The good news is that taking a daily nutritional supplement containing a mixture of berry extracts is an excellent way to get a variety of unique phytochemicals, and cover your antioxidant protection needs.

Berry good for you recipes

Berry Smoothie

Ingredients

  • 2 frozen bananas
  • 4-5 strawberries
  • 1/2 cup of blueberries
  • 1/2 cup of raspberries
  • 1 tsp. of maple syrup or stevia (optional)

Blend in a food processor or blender. About 500 calories (if you use the maple syrup) and 0 fat

Serves: 1-2

 Two berry crisp

Ingredients

  • 1 pint blueberries
  • 1 pint strawberries, hulled, sliced
  • 2 cups sugar-free granola
  • 2 TB coconut oil

Preparation:

Preheat oven to 375°. Toss prepared berries in an 8-inch square glass baking dish. Blend coconut oil with the granola and sprinkle the mixture over the berries.Cover dish with foil and bake for 30 minutes. Remove foil and bake another 10 minutes, until topping is browned. Serve warm or at room temperature, with ice cream or whipped topping.

Serves 6-8

Enjoy!


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Barbra Cohn cared for her husband Morris for 10 years. He passed away from younger-onset Alzheimer’s disease in 2010. Afterward, she was compelled to write “Calmer Waters: The Caregiver’s Journey Through Alzheimer’s & Dementia”—Winner of the 2018 Book Excellence Award in Self-Helpin order to help other caregivers feel healthier and happier, have more energy, sleep better, feel more confident, deal with feelings of guilt and grief, and to ultimately experience inner peace. “Calmer Waters” is available at AmazonBarnes & NobleBoulder Book StoreTattered Cover Book Store,  Indie Bound.org, and many other fine independent bookstores, as well as public libraries.

8 reasons to eat chocolate on Valentine’s Day and throughout the year

Valentine's Day card and confectionery.Americans buy more than 58 million pounds of chocolate around the holiday of love. Besides the delicious taste, smell and aphrodisiac effects, researchers are continually discovering more health benefits.

The use of cacao for health benefits dates back at least 3000 years. It was revered as a food, medicine and currency in Mexico, Central and South America, where it was also celebrated and incorporated into artwork, legends and sacred rituals. Now, because of extensive research, we know the main health benefits of cacao come from the flavonol epicatechin. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts. You can have your chocolate and eat it too, but if you want to enjoy its extensive health benefits be sure to eat high-quality dark chocolate. Or go one step further and enjoy raw cacao, which might take some getting used to for the simple reason we are used to sweetened chocolate. And if you just want the pure and simple health benefits, forego the chocolate and take raw cacao capsules. Although I definitely wouldn’t recommend giving your sweetheart a bottle of cacao capsules on Valentine’s Day. Indulge in the good-tasting stuff!

  1. Chocolate is an aphrodisiac. Legend has it that the Aztec emperor Montezuma was said to consume large amounts of the cocoa bean to fuel his libido. Today, scientists attribute the aphrodisiac qualities of chocolate to two chemicals: 1) tryptophan, which is a building block of serotonin, a brain chemical involved in sexual arousal. And, 2) phenylethylamine, a stimulant related to amphetamine, that is released in the brain when people fall in love. What about you? Do you experience a heightened sense of arousal after eating dark chocolate?
  2. Chocolate contains good-for-you antioxidants Chocolate comes from the cacao bean, which thrives in hot, rainy climates in South America, Africa and Indonesia. Similar to grapes, the local soil and climate affects the taste of the harvested beans. When you buy a chocolate bar that has the percentage number on the bar wrapper, that represents the weight that comes from the cacao bean content, according to Robert L. Wolke, author of What Einstein Told His Cook: Kitchen Science Explained. The higher the number, the lower the percentage of sugar and the more bitter and complex the flavor, he says. And the higher the number the more antioxidants.
  3. Cacao is rich in magnesium, sulfur, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, potassium and manganese, all essential minerals . . . and antioxidants that support immune health.
  4. Chocolate reduces your risk of Type 2 Diabetes Researchers discovered that the flavanols in chocolate have beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. In a 30-year-long study of 953 men and women from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), researchers found that the individuals who never or rarely ate chocolate had a significantly higher chance of developing Type 2 diabetes after five years when compared to individuals who ate chocolate more than once a week. Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975-2010): Prospective observations.
  5. Protects you from heart disease A 2012 report published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that dark chocolate has a beneficial effect on blood pressure, vascular dilation and cholesterol levels, and can play a role in reducing metabolic precursors that lead to diabetes and eventually to heart disease. However, a study published in October 2016 (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.) found that out of 32 cocoa product samples analyzed, the cocoa flavanol dose must be about 900 mg or above to decrease blood pressure, and contain 100 mg of epicatechin. So if you want to eat chocolate for health benefits, be sure to check the ingredient label. The aim of the study was to review the effect of cocoa flavanols on cardiovascular health, with emphasis on the doses ingested, and to analyze a range of cocoa products for content of these compounds. PubMed was searched from 2010 to locate systematic reviews (SR) on clinical effects of chocolate consumption.
  6. Supports mental function In a study carried out by the University of L’Aquila in Italy, 90 elderly participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) drank cocoa containing high, medium or low levels of flavanoids. At the end of the eight-week study researchers found improvements in the motor response, working memory, task switching, and verbal memory in the participants who drank cocoa with a higher flavanol content. (Hypertension, Aug. 14, 2012) Alzheimer’s and dementia patients are especially fond of sweets because the taste of sweetness is the last taste to disappear.  So if your loved one has Alzheimer’s or dementia, indulge him/her in chocolate. Just remember not to overdo it and make sure to include good dental hygiene in your loved one’s daily regimen.
  7. Helps you think better after a sleepless night The next time you have a bad night’s sleep, instead of indulging in a cup of Joe drink hot chocolate. Sleep deprivation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and scientists have found that flavanol-rich chocolate counteracted vascular impairment after sleep deprivation and restored working memory performance. Their theory is that the study’s participants had improved cognitive performance because of the effects of cocoa flavonoids on blood pressure and blood flow.Flavanol-rich chocolate acutely improves arterial function and working memory performance counteracting the effects of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals.
  8. Makes you feel gooood Scientists have discovered why chocolate uplifts your mood. Serotonin is the neurotransmitter responsible for keeping us happy, and cacao stops the amino acid tryptophan from breaking down. Since tryptophan is one of the amino acids that make serotonin this, in turn, limits the breakdown of serotonin. (Frontiers in Experimental Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, Dec. 2013)

On Valentine’s Day celebrate with your loved one by enjoy a steaming cup of delicious hot chocolate made with whole milk or rice or flax milk. Or indulge in a dark chocolate truffle, candy bar or chocolate ice cream. It’ll boost your spirit and your immunity. Just be careful not to overdo it because the calories can add up quickly.

As an added treat, make this yummy chocolate souffle. (Substitute coconut sugar, or raw sugar, if you like.)  It’s easier than you think.

Chocolate Souffle

Ingredients

  • 1⁄3 cup sugar, plus additional for sprinkling
  • 5 ounces bittersweet chocolate chips
  • 3 large egg yolks, at room temperature
  • 6 large egg whites
  • 1⁄8 tablespoon butter

Directions

  • Preheat oven to 375°F.
  • Measure out sugar, chocolate and separate eggs.
  • Butter soufflé dish entirely and then add sugar (additional) coating the entire dish.
  • Melt chocolate in a double boiler, or directly on the stove.
  • Add yolks to chocolate (this will harden the chocolate so don’t be alarmed).
  • Beat egg whites with a pinch of salt. Slowly add sugar, a little at a time. Beat until egg whites hold stiff peaks.
  • Fold white mixture into chocolate slowly and stir until smooth.
  • Pour into large soufflé dish or 4 ramekins and run the end of your thumb around inside to remove any extra batter.
  • Bake until puffed and crusted on top but still jiggly in center, 20 to 25 minutes.
  • Serve immediately with whipped cream or ice cream.

Yay chocolate!


For healthy and nutritious recipes and dozens of ways to reduce stress, feel happier and healthier and sleep more soundly, read Calmer Waters: The Caregiver’s Journey Through Alzheimer’s and Dementia.   Available on Amazon and at all bookstores that sell quality books.

BarbraCohn__

 

8 Ways to Eat Your Way to Healthy Aging

It’s Healthy Aging Month and it’s a good time to ask yourself “what am I doing to stave off chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, Parkinson’s, osteoporosis and other age-related diseases? How can I age gracefully?”

Senior African American Couple Drinking Orange Juice

 

  1. Eating fish such as wild-caught salmon, sardines and other cold-water fish can protect you against Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Numerous studies have shown that elderly people who did not have dementia had high blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential fatty acid found in cold-water fish, in comparison to those with dementia, who had on average 30% to 40% lower blood levels of DHA. Ways to increase your DHA intake: eat cold-water fish such as wild-caught salmon, sardines and mackerel, at least twice a week. Add flax meal to cereal and baked goods, sprinkle flax oil on your salad, eat a small handful of walnuts at least several times a week.
  2. Eat breakfast! It is the meal that you break your fast with. During the night our blood sugar levels drop, so it’s especially important to eat within one hour of arising and by 10am. Eating breakfast restores healthy blood sugar levels, but make sure your breakfast isn’t coffee and a doughnut. Have some protein and a healthy fat such as an omelet and avocado and a piece of whole grain or gluten-free toast. It’ll provide you with the energy you need to get through the morning while maintaining a sense of equilibrium. My favorite cool weather breakfast is eggs (any way you like them), a side of beans such as black or pinto, and a pile of sautéed greens. When the weather is hot, I prefer home-made granola made with oats, a bit of coconut oil and maple syrup, coconut flakes, and lots of nuts including almonds, walnuts, cashews, and pumpkin seeds. Add chia seeds, flax meal, yogurt and fresh berries and you’ve got a breakfast for champions.
  3. Avoid commercially processed meats and favor grass-fed meats, free-range chickens and eggs fed an organic, non-GMO diet. And limit your meat consumption to no more than twice a week.
  4. Eat like a rabbit to reduce your risk of stroke, dementia, macular degeneration, and other chronic illness. Veggies are low in calories and high in fiber. Fruits are also high in fiber and like veggies, contain numerous vitamins and minerals. Just like people, fruits and vegetables come in a variety of shapes, sizes and colors. And it’s the colors that identify many of the bioactive substances called phytonutrients that give us antioxidant protection and other special health benefits. The scientific community has produced a large body of research showing the potential of these super nutrients. Compared with people who eat few fruits and vegetables, populations that consume a large variety and generous amounts of plant foods enjoy longevity and reduced risk of disease. For example, the people of Okinawa have a long life expectancy, numerous centenarians, and a low-risk of age-associated diseases. Their diet is low in calories, fat, sugar, salt, and meat and dairy products. Instead, Okinawans eat fish, tofu, whole grains, and lots of fruit, dark green leafy vegetables, onions, green peppers, sea vegetables and sweet potatoes—which are all dense in phytonutrients and antioxidants. These islanders are known for a low-stress, carefree and relaxed attitude. Their rates of stroke, dementia, cancer and heart disease are also the lowest in the world. For every 100,000 people in Okinawa, 30 have passed their 100th birthday, one of the highest rates in the world.
  5. Eliminate soft drinks; they increase your risk of insulin resistance and diabetes. Instead, drink plenty of water to hydrate your brain and body.
  6. A cup of Joe will do you good . . . just don’t overdo it and don’t add lots of cream of sugar. Researchers from the University of Scranton found that coffee is the number one source of antioxidants in the U.S. diet. Coffee has been shown to improve mental acuity. In fact, a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease (2012) found that people older than 65 who had higher blood levels of caffeine developed Alzheimer’s disease two to four years later than people with lower caffeine levels. The study included 124 people who had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Typically, 15% of people with MCI will go on to develop full-blown Alzheimer’s disease each year. The study participants who had less than 1,200 ng/ml of caffeine levels in their blood developed Alzheimer’s disease. This is equivalent to drinking several cups of coffee a few hours before their blood was taken. The people whose memory loss did not progress to full-blown Alzheimer’s disease had higher levels of caffeine in their blood. Coffee appeared to be the only source of caffeine for the participants in the study. Some big caveats: if you have high blood pressure limit your coffee intake to 2 cups a day, and avoid drinking it before exercise or physical labor which both naturally raise blood pressure. Coffee acts as a diuretic, depleting the body of necessary fluids, so make sure you drink a glass of water for every cup of coffee you drink. Coffee can raise homocysteine levels, an indicator and risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It can also cause headaches, fatigue, depression, anxiety and drowsiness if a coffee drinker forgoes his or her usual daily dose of caffeine. So be smart and listen to your body.
  7. If you can’t drink coffee, consider green tea. Scientists have found evidence that green tea extract can help fight everything from glaucoma to prostate cancer and leukemia. Now, a research team composed of chemists, biochemists and biophysicists at the University of Michigan has found a new potential benefit of green tea extract: preventing the clumping of proteins associated amyloids in the brain, which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. The study found that the specific molecule in green tea, ( — )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also known as EGCG, prevented aggregate formation and broke down existing aggregate structures in the proteins that contained the metals copper, iron and zinc.At Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, researchers tracked the green tea consumption of nearly 14,000 people over age 65 for three years. The participants’ quality of life (measured in day-to-day activities such as getting dressed, walking the dog, and performing household chores) was examined in relation to how much green tea they drank. The authors found that the more green tea participants consumed, the longer they were able to ward off the difficulties associated with old age. The people who drank at least five cups a day were one-third less likely to develop disabilities than those who had less than a cup per day. Those people who averaged three or four cups a day had a 25 percent lower risk. Just remember that while green tea and its extracts are considered safe in small amounts, they do contain caffeine and small amounts of vitamin K, which means it could interfere with drugs that prevent blood clotting. So the next time you feel the need for a cup of coffee or black tea, consider drinking a cup of green tea instead. It just might help you maintain clarity of mind, healthy bones, and cardiovascular health well into your senior years.
  8. Herbs or adaptogens can be helpful for increasing energy without stimulation. An adaptogen is a natural substance—usually an herb—that helps the body adapt to stress by producing a calming effect on the whole physiology, and stress is often blamed with being the root cause of many illnesses and diseases. Phytosterols, the plant compounds in the herbs ashwaghanda, gotu kola, passion flower, schizandra, skullcap, rhodiola, and cordyceps have been scientifically shown to support the adrenal glands and healthy blood chemistry, and enhance the body’s ability to resist the ravages of stress. Valerian, Siberian ginseng, kava kava, oat straw, and hops also help reduce stress. These herbs can be taken as a tea or in the form of a nutritional supplement. Culinary herbs also have numerous health benefits. Turmeric, the spice used in Indian cooking, has dozens of studies backing up its ability to reduce inflammation, another major cause of chronic disease, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Cinnamon helps to stabilize blood sugar levels, which is vital to healthy aging. Oregano contains antioxidants that offer antibacterial protection. Garlic has been called the natural antibiotic, and ginger root has been used for thousands of years for its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects. The list goes on and on.

Bon appetite!

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Antioxidants: Are they protective against dementia and stroke?

The journal Neurology recently published a study indicating that antioxidants do not reduce stroke or dementia risk. This study contradicted what other studies have shown and I want to present the opposing viewpoint.

“These results are interesting because other studies have suggested that antioxidants may help protect against stroke and dementia,” said study author Elizabeth E. Devore, ScD, of Harvard Medical School in Boston and Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Netherlands. “It’s possible that individual antioxidants, or the main foods that contribute those antioxidants—rather than the total antioxidant level in the diet—contribute to the lower risk of dementia and stroke found in earlier studies.”

Devore add that “This differed from an Italian study that found the higher total antioxidant levels were associated with a lower risk of stroke, where the variation from coffee and tea was lower, and the contribution from alcoholic beverages, fruits and vegetables was higher.”

The study followed more than 5,000 participants aged 55 years and older who provided information about their diets. Devore pointed out that most (90%) of the difference in the antioxidant levels in people’s diets was due to how much tea or coffee they consumed.

Researchers from the University of Scranton found that coffee is the number one source of antioxidants in the US diet. Study leader, Joe Vinson, Ph.D., said “Americans get more of their antioxidants from coffee than any other dietary source. Nothing else comes close.”

Sure, coffee offers some antioxidant protection. But you can get more bang for your buck with 5 to 7 servings of fruits and vegetables every day.

How many fruits and vegetables do you eat each day?

If you’re like most Americans, you’re probably not getting the recommended five to seven servings. Now more than ever we know why getting your greens, blues, reds, oranges and yellows is absolutely essential to good health and longevity.

Just like people, fruits and vegetables come in a variety of shapes, sizes and colors. And it’s the colors that identify many of the bioactive substances called phytonutrients that give us antioxidant protection and other special health benefits.

What are phytonutrients?

Phyto comes from the Greek word that means plant. Phytonutrients are the natural chemicals found in all plant foods—including grains, nuts and seeds—that help fine-tune all bodily functions and support our health. Phytonutrients contain potent antioxidants and other compounds that help slow down the aging process and prevent chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers. On a day-to-day basis, phytonutrients help boost our immunity and support our overall well being, so we feel energized, uplifted and have a sparkle in our eyes.

How do phytonutrients reduce risk of disease?

  • Provide antioxidant protection
  • Support healthy immune response
  • Convert to vitamin A (from alpha- and beta-carotene)
  • Support healthy estrogen metabolism

Proven results

The scientific community has produced a large body of research showing the potential of these super nutrients. Compared with people who eat few fruits and vegetables, populations that consume a large variety and generous amounts of plant foods enjoy longevity and reduced risk of disease.

Take for example the people of Okinawa, who live on an island between Japan and Taiwan. They have a long life expectancy, numerous centenarians, and a low-risk of age-associated diseases. Their diet is low in calories, fat, sugar, salt, and meat and dairy products. Instead, Okinawans eat fish, tofu, whole grains, and lots of fruit, dark green leafy vegetables, onions, green peppers, sea vegetables and sweet potatoes—which are all dense in phytonutrients and antioxidants. These islanders are known for a low-stress, carefree and relaxed attitude. Their rates of stroke, dementia, cancer and heart disease are also the lowest in the world. For every 100,000 people in Okinawa, 30 have passed their 100th birthday, one of the highest rates in the world.

Free radicals and antioxidants

You’ve heard the terms a million times, but what exactly are they?

Free radicals are dangerous, highly reactive, unstable molecules that produce oxidative stress or cellular damage throughout the body, and play a primary role in the aging process. It’s impossible to be alive and not have some free radical damage—because free radicals are produced by normal processes in the body (like the release of adrenaline), and from environmental sources such as ultraviolet radiation, tobacco smoke, food additives and other pollutants.

You’ve seen what happens to an apple that sits on the counter for too long. It turns brown, just like the rusty nail that has been exposed to sun and rain. These are examples of oxidation. Once free radicals are released they multiply geometrically in chain reactions causing oxidative damage, unless they are stopped by antioxidants.

Antioxidants are molecules that donate an electron to the free radical. The free radical stabilizes and stops wreaking havoc in the body. Vitamins C and E are well-known antioxidant vitamins, and phytonutrients exert antioxidant protection, as well.

It’s important to get a variety of phytonutrients

Every plant contains several types of phytonutrients. These phytonutrients work synergistically with each other and with the phytonutrients in other plants to produce the beneficial effects in your body. This is why it’s important to eat a varied diet containing fruits and vegetables of all colors of the rainbow. For example, scientists are discovering that if the only vegetable you ate for dinner was carrots, the amount of antioxidant protection you’d get, and your body’s ability to convert alpha-carotene to vitamin A would be far less than if you ate carrots and kale and broccoli at the same meal.

The Okinawans enjoy their tea. But they also include plenty of vegetables and fish in their diet, which is something that is making headlines right now in regard to the benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

 

 

 

 

 

References

  1. Elizabeth E. Devore, ScD., et al. “Total antioxidant capacity of the diet and major neurologic outcomes in older adults” Neurology Feb 20th, 2013. 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182840c8

 

  1. Middleton LE, Yaffe K. Targets for the prevention of dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20(3):915-24. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-091657.

 

  1. Willcox DC, Willcox BJ, Todoriki H, Suzuki M. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Aug;28 Suppl:500S-516S.